Douglas Ruby, Ph.D. - Consultant to the Photovoltaics Industry
Kanber, H., et al. “Correlation Between Chemical and Electrical Profiles in Si and SeImplanted Bulk and Epitaxial GaAs,” The Conference Record of the 1981 Electronic Materials Conference, Santa Barbara, California.
 
Kwok, S. P., et al. “Backgating Effect in Ion Implanted GaAs VPE Buffer Layers,” The Conference Record of the 1983 Electronic Materials Conference, Burlington, Vermont.
 
DeJule, R. Y., et al. “Constant Capacitance DLTS Circuit for Measuring .High Purity Semiconductors,” Solid State Electronics, (1985), p. 28 and p. 639.
 
Ruby, D. S., K. Arai, and G. E. Stillman. “Deep Level Electron Traps in VPE GaAs Grown with Oxygen Injection,” Journal of Applied Physics. (July 15, 1985).
 
Ruby, D. S., et al. “DLTS Study of Electron Traps in VPE GaAs Grown with Intentionally Added Oxygen,” The Conference Record of the 1985 Electronic Materials Conference, Boulder, Colorado.
 
Ruby, D. S. “A Technique for Soldering GaAs Concentrator Solar Cells,” The Conference Record of the 19th IEEE Photovoltaics Specialists Conference, New Orleans. (Piscataway: The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 1987), pp. 1502-1503.
 
Ruby, D. S. “Safety Considerations for High-Efficiency Crystalline-Silicon Solar Cell Fabrication,” The Conference Record of the 20th IEEE Photovoltaics Specialists Conference, Las Vegas. (Piscataway; The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 1988), pp. 523-528.
 
Ruby, D. S. “GaAs/Ge Tandem-Cell Space Concentrator Development,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices. (Piscataway: The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 1990), Vol. 37, pp. 455-463.
 
Ruby, D. S., and J. D. McBrayer. “The Effects of Different Diffusion Sources on Silicon Solar Cell Recombination Properties,” The Conference Record of the 21st IEEE Photovoltaics Specialists Conference, Kissimmee. (Piscataway: The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 1990), pp. 311-316.
 
Ruby, D. S., et al. “A Comparison of Diffusion Sources for Silicon Solar Cells on the Basis of Performance and Cost,” edited by D. S. Ruby. The Conference Record of the 1990 DOE/Sandia Crystalline Photovoltaic Technology Project Review Meeting. (Albuquerque: Sandia National Laboratories, 1990), SAND90-1821, pp. 145-150.
 
Ruby, D. S., and W. Kent Schubert. “The Effects of Concentrated Ultraviolet Light on High-Efficiency Silicon Solar Cells,” The Conference Record of the 22nd IEEE Photovoltaics Specialists Conference, Las Vegas. (Piscataway: The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 1991), pp. 111-117.
Gee, J. M., et al. “Process Development for High-Efficiency Silicon Solar Cells,” The Conference Record of the Sixth International PVSEC, New Delhi, (1992) pp. 25-32.
 
Ruby, Douglas S., and Jules D. Levine. “Low-Temperature Emitter-Passivation for Silicon Solar Cells,” The Conference Record of the llth E. C. Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Montreux, Switzerland. (Harwood Academic Publishers, 1992), pp. 385-388.
Ruby, D. S., et al. “Simplified Processing for 23%-Efficient Silicon Concentrator Solar Cells,” The Conference Record of the 23rd IEEE PVSC, Louisville. (Piscataway: The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 1993), pp. 172-177.
 
Basore, P. A., et al. “Simplified High-Efficiency Silicon Cell Processing,” The Conference Record of the 7th International PV Science and Engineering Conference, Nagoya, Japan. (November 1993), pp. 61-64.
 
Basore, P. A., et al. “Simplified High-Efficiency Silicon Cell Processing,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Vol. 34, (1994), pp. 91-100.
 
Ruby, D. S. “Manufacturing of Silicon Concentrator Solar Cells,” The Conference Record of the First E. U. International Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells, Avila, Spain, (April 19-21, 1994).
 
Rohatgi, A., Z. Chen, P. Doshi, T. Pham, D. Ruby, “High Efficiency Silicon Solar Cells by Rapid Thermal Processing,” Applied Physics Letters 65, (October 17, 1994), pp. 2087-2089.
 
Fleddermann, C. B., and K. N. Wroblewski, and D. S. Ruby, “Measurement of Deposition Uniformity in PECVD of Silicon Nitride and Silicon Oxide,” The Conference Record of the 47th Annual Gaseous Electronics Conference, Gaithersburg, Maryland, Oct. 1994.
 
Ruby, D. S., W. L. Wilbanks, and C. B. Fleddermann. “A Statistical Analysis of the Effect of PECVD Deposition Parameters on Surface and Bulk Recombination in Silicon Solar Cells,” The Conference Record of the First WCPEC, Waikoloa, Hawaii. (Piscataway: The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 1994), pp. 1335-1338.
 
Doshi, P., et al. “Rapid Thermal Processing of High-Efficiency Silicon Solar Cells with Controlled In-situ Annealing,” The Conference Record of the First WCPEC, Waikoloa, Hawaii. (Piscataway: The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 1994), pp. 1299-1302.
 
Chen, Z., A. Rohatgi, and D. Ruby. “Silicon Surface and Bulk Defect Passivation by Low Temperature PECVD Oxides and Nitrides,” The Conference Record of the First WCPEC, Waikoloa, Hawaii. (Piscataway: The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 1994), pp. 1331-1334.
 
Witt, C. E., et al. “Recent Progress in the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology Project,” The Conference Record of the First WCPEC, Waikoloa, Hawaii. (Piscataway: The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 1994), pp. 2262-2270.
 
Schubert, W. K., et al. “A Simple Single-Photomask Process for Fabrication of High-Efficiency Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells,” The Conference Record of the First WCPEC, Waikoloa, Hawaii. (Piscataway: The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 1994), pp. 1327-1330.
 
Ruby, D. S., W. L. Wilbanks, C. B. Fleddermann, and J. I. Hanoka, “The Effect of Hydrogen-Plasma and PECVD-Nitride Deposition on Bulk and Surface Passivation in String-Ribbon Silicon Solar Cells,” Proc. 13th European PV Solar Energy Conference, Nice, France, October 1995, pp. 1412-1414.
 
Rohatgi, A., P. Doshi, M. Ropp, L. Cai, A. Doolittle, S. Narasimha, T. Krygowski, K. Tate, D. Yang, J. Rand, D. S. Ruby, and D. Meier, “Improved Understanding and Optimization of RTP and PECVD Processes for High-Efficiency Silicon Solar Cells,” Proc. 13th European PV Solar Energy Conference, Nice, France, October 1995, pp. 413-416.
 
Ruby, D. S., W. L Wilbanks, C. B. Fleddermann, M. D. Rosenblum, S. Roncin, and S. Narayanan, “Optimization of Plasma Deposition and Etching Processes for Commercial Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells,” The Conference Record of the 25th IEEE PVSC, Washington D.C., May 1996, pp. 637-640.
 
Mitchell, R. L., C. E. Witt, H. P. Thomas, L. 0. Herwig, D. S. Ruby, and C. C. Aldrich, “Benefits from the U.S. Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology Project,” The Conference Record of the 25th IEEE PVSC, Washing ton D.C., May 1996, pp. 1215-1218.
 
Narasimha, S., S. Kamra, A. Rohatgi, C. P. Khattak, and D. Ruby, “The Optimization and Fabrication of High Efficiency HEM Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells,” The Conference Record of the 25th IEEE PVSC, Washing ton D.C., May 1996, pp. 449-452.
 
Ruby, D. S., C. B. Fleddermann, M. Roy and S. Narayanan, “Self-Aligned Selective Emitter Plasma-Etchback and Passivation Process for Screen-Printed Silicon Solar Cells,” Sixth Workshop on the Role of Impurities and Defects in Silicon Device Processing, Snowmass, CO, August 1996, pp. 268-272.
 
Ruby, D. S., C. B. Fleddermann, M. Roy and S. Narayanan, “Self-Aligned Selective-Emitter Plasma-Etchback and Passivation Process for Screen-Printed Silicon Solar Cells,” Technical Digest of the 9 International Photovoltaic Science and Engineering Conference, Miyazaki, Japan, November 1996, pp. 111-112.
 
Ruby, D. S., C. B. Fleddermann, M. Roy and S. Narayanan, “Plasma Processing Applied to Crystalline-Silicon Solar Cells,” NREL/SNL Photovoltaics Program Review Meeting, Lakewood, CO, November 1996, pp. 745-750.
 
Doshi, P., A. Rohatgi, M. Ropp, Z. Chen, D. Ruby, and D.L. Meier, “Rapid thermal processing of high-efficiency silicon solar cells with controlled in-situ annealing,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 41/42, July 1996, pp. 31-39.
 
Ruby, D. S., P. Yang, M. Roy and S. Narayanan, “Recent Progress on the Self-Aligned, Selective-Emitter Silicon Solar Cell,” The Conference Record of the 26th IEEE PVSC, Anaheim CA, September-October 1997, pp. 39-42.
 
Krygowski, T., A. Rohatgi, D. Ruby, “Simultaneous P and B Diffusion, in-situ Surface Passivation, Impurity Filtering and Gettering for High-Efficiency Silicon solar Cells,” The Conference Record of the 26th IEEE PVSC, Anaheim CA, September-October 1997,pp.19-24.
 
Mitchell, R. L., C. E. Witt, H. P. Thomas, R. King, D S. Ruby and C. C. Aldrich, “Progress Update on the PVMaT Project,” The Conference Record of the 26th IEEE PVSC, Anaheim CA, September-October 1997, pp. 1073-1076.
 
Ruby, D. S., C. B. Fleddermann, M. Roy and S. Narayanan, “Self-Aligned Selective-Emitter Plasma-Etchback and Passivation Process for Screen-Printed Silicon Solar Cells,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 48 1997, pp. 255-260.
 
Ruby, D. S., et al., “Manufacturing Improvements in the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) Project,” Conf. Rec. of 2 World Conference on PV Energy Conv., Vienna Austria, July 1998, pp. 1969-1973.
 
Rohatgi, A., Narasimha, S., and Ruby, D. S., “Effective Passivation of the Low Resistivity Silicon Surface by a Rapid Thermal Oxide/PECVD Silicon Nitride Stack and its Application to Passivated Rear and Bifacial Si Solar Cells,” Conf. Rec. of 2 World Conference on PV Energy Conv., Vienna Austria, July 1998, pp. 1566-1569.
 
Moschner, J., Doshi, P., Ruby, D. S., et al., “Comparison of Front and Back surface Passivation Schemes for Silicon Solar Cells,” Conf. Rec. of 2 World Conference on PV Energy Conv., Vienna Austria, July 1998, pp. 1894-1897.
 
Ruby, D. S., P. Yang, S. Zaidi, S. Brueck, M. Roy and S. Narayanan, “Improved Performance of Self-Aligned, Selective-Emitter Silicon Solar Cells,” Conf. Rec. of 2nd World Conference on PV Energy Conv., Vienna Austria, July 1998, pp. 1460-1463.
 
Ruby, D. S., P. Yang, S. Zaidi, S. Brueck, M. Roy and S. Narayanan, “Improved Performance of Self-Aligned, Selective-Emitter Silicon Solar Cells,” 8 Workshop on Crystalline Silicon, Copper Mountain, CO., August 1998, pp. 225-228.
 
Ruby, D. S., P. Yang, S. Zaidi, S. Brueck, M. Roy and S. Narayanan, “Plasma Etching, Texturing, and Passivation of Silicon Solar Cells,” Proc. Of NCPV Project Review Meeting, Denver, CO., September 1998, pp. 430-436.
 
Gee, James M., Saleem H. Zaidi, and Douglas S. Ruby, “Advanced Silicon Space Solar Cells using Nanotechnology,” Micro- and Nano-Satellite Technology Conference 99. 
 
Ruby, Douglas S., Pin Yang, Saleem Zaidi, Madhu Roy, S. Narayanan, “Plasma Texturing, Etching and Passivation of Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells,” Renewable and Advanced Energy Systems for the 21 Century, Maui, HI, April 1999. Winner of 1999 Best Paper Award.
 
Saleem H. Zaidi, James M. Gee, Douglas S. Ruby and S. Brueck, “Characterization of Si Nanostructured Surfaces,” 44 SPIE Annual Meeting, July 1999.
 
Ruby, D.S., Zaidi, G.H., Roy, M., et al., “Plasma texturing of silicon solar cells,” 9th Workshop on Crystalline-Silicon Solar Cell Materials and Processes, Breckenridge, August 1999, pp. 179-182.
 
R. J. Buss, D. S. Ruby, G. A. Hebner and P. Yang, “Modeling a Dry Etch Process for Large-Area Devices,” 9th Workshop on Crystalline-Silicon Solar Cell Materials and Processes, Breckenridge, August 1999, pp. 175-178.
 
Keith Matthei, Ghazi Darkazalli, and Douglas S. Ruby, “Design of a High-Throughput Plasma-Processing System,” 9th Workshop on Crystalline-Silicon Solar Cell Materials and Processes, Breckenridge, August 1999, pp. 183-188.
 
C. Edwin Witt, Richard L. Mitchell, Martha Symko-Davies, Holly P. Thomas, Richard King, and Douglas S. Ruby, Current Status and Future Prospects for the PVMaT Project, 11PVSEC, Soporo, Japan, September 1999.
 
D. S. Ruby, T. F. Ciszek and B. L. Sopori, “Research Needs of c-Si Technology Required to Meet Roadmap Milestones,” NCPV Project Review Meeting, Denver, April 2000.
 
D. S. Ruby, S. H. Zaidi, S. Narayanan, “PLASMA-TEXTURIZATION FOR MULTICRYSTALLINE SILICON SOLAR CELLS,” 28th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, Anchorage, September 2000, pp. 75-78.
 
B.M. Damiani, R. Ludemann, D.S. Ruby, S.H. Zaidi, A. Rohatgi, “DEVELOPMENT OF RIE-TEXTURED SILICON SOLAR CELLS,” 28th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, Anchorage, September 2000, pp. 371-374.
 
Saleem H. Zaidi, James M. Gee, and Douglas S. Ruby, “DIFFRACTION GRATING STRUCTURES IN SOLAR CELLS,” 28th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, Anchorage, September 2000, pp. 395-398.
 
C. Edwin Witt, Richard L. Mitchell, and Martha Symko-Davies; Richard King, Douglas S. Ruby, “TEN YEARS OF MANUFACTURING R&D IN PVMaT - TECHNICAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS, RETURN ON INVESTMENT, AND WHERE DO WE GO NEXT,” 28th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, Anchorage, September 2000.pp.1502-1504.
 
Martha Symko Davies et al., “Decade of PV Industry R&D Advances in Silicon Module Manufacturing,” 28th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, Anchorage, September 2000, pp. 1460-1463.
 
S.H Zaidi, D.S. Ruby, and J.M. Gee, “Characterization of Random Reactive Ion Etched-Textured Silicon Solar Cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, Vol. 48, No. 6, June 2001, pp. 1200-1206.
 
D. S. Ruby, S. H. Zaidi, B. M. Damiani, A. Rohatgi, “RIE-Texturing of Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells,” PVSEC-12, Cheju, Korea, June 2001, pp. 273-274.
 
A. Ebong, D.S. Ruby, et al., “Belt Furnace Gettering and Passivation of n-Web Silicon for High-Efficiency Screen-Printed Front-Surface-Field Solar Cells,” Progress in Photovoltaics, Vol 9, No. 5, Sept-Oct. 2001, pp. 327-332.
 
Ruby, Douglas S., et al., “RIE-Texturing of Industrial Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells,” SAND 2002-1550C, 29th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, New Orleans, May 2002, pp. 146-149.
Ruby, Douglas S., et al., “PVMaT Advances in the Photovoltaic Industry and the Focus of Future PV Manufacturing R&D,” 29th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, New Orleans, May 2002, 1444-1447.
 
Ruby, Douglas S.; Gee, James; et al., “Enhanced Near IR Absorption in Random, RIE-Textured Silicon Solar Cells: The Role of Surface Profiles,” 29th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, New Orleans, May 2002, pp. 142-145.
 
D. S. Ruby, S. H. Zaidi, S. Narayanan, B. M. Damiani, A. Rohatgi, “RIE-Texturing of Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 74 (2002), pp. 133-137.
A. Ebong, Y.H. Cho, M. Hilali, A. Rohatgi, D. Ruby, “Rapid thermal technologies for high-efficiency silicon solar cells,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 74 (2002), pp. 51-55.
 
RIE-TEXTURING OF INDUSTRIAL MULTICRYSTALLINE SILICON SOLAR CELLS, Douglas S. Ruby, Saleem Zaidi, S. Narayanan, Satoshi Yamanaka, Ruben Balanga, ASME Int'l Solar Energy Conference, Kona, HI, March 2003.
 
D.H. MacDonald, D.S. Ruby, et al., “Texturing Industrial Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells,” Solar Energy, Vol 76, (2004), pp. 277-283.
 
RIE-TEXTURING OF INDUSTRIAL MULTICRYSTALLINE SILICON SOLAR CELLS, Douglas S. Ruby, Saleem Zaidi, S. Narayanan, Satoshi Yamanaka, Ruben Balanga, Trans. of ASME, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, Feb. 2005, pp. 146-149.
 
Analysis and Proposal for High-Efficiency Electrolysis for Cost-Effective Hydrogen Production, D. Ruby, Sandia National Laboratories and S. Cohen, Teledyne Energy Systems, Inc., DOE Solar Energy Technology Program Project Review Meeting, Denver, 2004.
 
Final LDRD Report: Ultraviolet Water Purification Systems for Rural Environments and Mobile Applications, SAND2005-7245, Unlimited Release, Printed November 2005, Mary H. Crawford, Michael A. Banas, Semiconductor Material and Device Sciences Department, Michael P. Ross, Douglas S. Ruby, Jeffrey S. Nelson, Solar Technologies Department, et al.
 
SANDIA REPORT, SAND2006-101297, Printed October 2006
Integrating Nano-Enabled Wireless Systems, Sean J. Hearne, Steven C. Seel, Kent B. Pfeifer, Kenneth Peterson, Blake Jakaboski, Doug Ruby, Frederick T. Mendenhall, David Adams, Larry Weinstein, Glenn G. Amatucci.
 
“ZnO Nanostructures as Efficient Antireflection Layers in Solar Cells”, Yun-Ju Lee, Douglas S. Ruby, David W. Peters, Bonnie B. McKenzie, and Julia W. P. Hsu, NANO LETTERS, 2008, Vol. 8, No. 5, pp. 1501-1505

“Optimization of metallization scheme for thin emitter wrap-through solar cells for higher efficiency, reduced precious metal costs, and reduced stress.”, Ruby, Douglas Scott, Dominguez, Jason ,  Murphy, Brian ,  Hacke, Peter ,  Meakin, David ,  ,Sandia Report No: SAND2008-5411
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